What are the 4 C's?

The valuation of gold and diamonds is completely different. The 4 C’s, known as the characteristics to determine the quality of your diamond, define together the unique aspect of each diamond. Therefore it’s important to understand these features. The quality of diamonds is translated in the 4 C's:
- Carat
- Colour
- Clarity
- Cut
These characteristics give an idea of the quality of a diamond and are used to identify them.
1. Carat
The weight and size of a stone are expressed in carat. 1 carat is 0,2 gram and divided into 100 points (or 200 milligram).
This scale is very precise in determining a stone's weight and is rounded up to two decimals.
The correlation between carat weight and diamond value can be surprising. The higher the carat weight, the more
unique and the higher priced. That’s the reason why a 2 ct diamond has not twice, but the triple value compared to a 1 Ct
diamond.

Finally, the carat of a diamond has also a symbolic meaning. While the visual difference between a 0.98 Ct and a 1.01 Ct
diamond is hardly visible, the price of the 1.01 Ct will be noticeably higher. We can explain this price difference by the fact
that some weights are considered as 'magic sizes': e.g. 1.00 Ct, 1.50 Ct,…
2. Colour
The colour of a white diamond stone is determined thanks to an internationally recognized colour pallet. Colours are
graduated from D, which is colourless and the most searched for, to Z, the yellowest.
Diamonds can also be brown, orange, pink or blue... The most intense colour shades are named 'fancy' and this is
mentioned on their certificate. These coloured diamonds are extremely rare and therefore very precious, but also more
speculative. Our experts noticed that the market becomes remarkably smaller for reselling a very rare diamond (colorful,
very large, fancy shapes). It requires more time to resell such diamonds at a desirable price.
Click on this link for more information about the liquidity of white and coloured diamonds
3. Clarity

In order to determine the clarity (or purity) of a stone, an expert will look at it under a magnifying glass (x10 enlargement).
Most diamonds are born with birth marks, known as inclusions. The fewer flaws are present, the more light can shine
through the diamond, and the better it will sparkle. The diamond can shine more than any other gemstone if the quality of its clarity is good enough.

The clarity of the diamond can be flawed in two ways:

  • External impurities: the blemishes occur during the cutting process or are due to wear
  • Internal impurities: these inclusions relate to any flaws within the stone. Many types exist.

Most common inclusions are:

  • Black or dark spots, which originate in the coal
  • Clouds - microscopic veils which weaken the clarity
  • Feathers - most impurities in diamonds come out of the molecular break during the creation process of a stone from coal

Determining the clarity grades

Most often, a loupe or microscope (x10 enlargement) is used to determine the clarity of a stone. This means that flaws
that cannot be seen at this enlargement are considered as non-existing.

4. Cut
Cut is a diamond's most important characteristic. It is the factor that fuels a diamond’s fire, sparkle and brilliance. Cut refers
to a diamond’s proportions, symmetry and polish. If the depth of the diamond is too shallow or too deep it will allow light to
escape through the sides or the bottom of the stone. A well-cut diamond will direct almost all the light through the crown.
The term 'cut' can also describe the shape of a diamond. Other shapes than the standard round brilliant cut are called fancy
cuts. The most known are the marquise, pear, oval, heart and emerald cut.

Watch here two videos with more information about diamonds and certificates

Carat, Colour, Clarity, Cut - Baunat Diamonds